Wayne Bell, age 37, of Mount Walk, Castleford, posted an image on a Russian social media site showing a man being hung by a rope with a Star of David on his forehead, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) said.
In another post he described Jewish people as "destructive" and "vile".
Prosecutors said Bell was also behind hate-filled graffiti.
A CPS spokesman said that Bell posted in August 2016, "The only way," below a photo of a police officer's foot raised above the head of an unarmed black man, lying on the ground.
The spokesman said that in late 2016 he posted a number of messages on Twitter continuing his campaign of stirring up hatred against Jewish and black people.
Bell was a prominent member of National Action before its was banned 18 months ago and he featured in two posters used in a recruitment campaign.
The spokesman said 13 videos were found on Bell's mobile phone and featured an unseen man - believed to be Bell - directing others who were daubing anti-Semitic graffiti, including swastikas and references to the Holocaust.
A rucksack found at his workplace in Leeds contained National Action stickers.
Bell pleaded guilty at Leeds Crown Court to two counts of stirring up racial hatred and three counts of possession of items with intent to destroy or damage property.
Last year he was sentenced to 30 months in prison after clashes between members of National Action and anti-fascist groups in Liverpool in February 2016.
Head of the Counter-Terrorism Division in the CPS, Sue Hemming, said: "Wayne Bell is a committed racist who posted messages on social media intending to stir up racial hatred against Jewish and black people.
"He was also behind graffiti that promoted his Neo-Nazi views and his deep rooted-hatred of all non-Aryan races."
Detective Chief Superintendent Martin Snowden, Head of Counter Terrorism Policing North East, said: "Activity like this has the potential to both influence vulnerable people and threaten the stability of our communities by inciting hatred and threatening public safety and security.
"We will not tolerate any action which attempts to undermine or divide our communities and will continue to counter extremism and terrorism in all its forms."
Chief Superintendent Mabs Hussain, district commander of Wakefield Police, said: “We welcome Bell’s sentence today for what are serious offences intended to cause to cause disharmony between communities, and I am very pleased with the investigation conducted by colleagues at Counter Terrorism Policing North East.
“The Wakefield district overwhelmingly enjoys good and positive relationships between its various communities and I am pleased that extremists such as Bell are in a very small minority indeed."