The 46-year-old man was reversing his lorry up Jubilee Street just off Canklow Road, when bricks were thrown at his vehicle.
The incident happened at around 8.30am on March 10.
PC Leah Tolliday from South Yorkshire Police said: "These bricks were launched towards the cab and hit the driver in the face, causing serious injuries.
"This was a thoroughly distressing incident for him, and we are working hard to identify those responsible.
"If you were in the area last Wednesday morning and saw the incident happen or have any dash cam footage which captured what happened, please do get in touch."
Anyone with information can call police on 101, quoting log 588 of March 10.