Police were called to Ecclesfield Road at 9.30pm to reports a 27-year-old man had been assaulted.
He was taken to hospital with suspected stab wounds that were deemed to be life-threatening, South Yorkshire Police said.
The man remains in hospital today in a critical but stable condition.
Police, who closed Ecclesfield Road for a time while emergency services responded to the incident, are appealing for any witnesses to the assault to get in touch.
Call 101, email [email protected] quoting incident number 1137 of 29 May 2016, or call Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.