Mr Goodwill, who backed Remain in the 2016 referendum, takes the rank of minister of state at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
He was dropped by Mrs May from a similar post in the Department for Education in the Prime Minister's reshuffle of January 2018.
Mr Goodwill, who arrived in Parliament in 2005, served as a whip and transport minister under David Cameron and was promoted to immigration minister, and then children's minister, by Mrs May before leaving the Government last year.
Leave-backing Mr Eustice quit on February 28 after more than five years as agriculture minister, complaining the Prime Minister's decision to allow a vote on delaying the date of Brexit could result in "the final humiliation of our country".
Mr Goodwill, who was educated at the Quaker Bootham School in York, has been a farmer since 1979 of 250 acres of land near Malton, which has been in his family since 1850.
According to the Government's website he has been the managing director of Mowthorpe Ltd since 1995, which offers environmentally friendly burials in the North Yorkshire countryside.