With the teams locked at 1-1 after normal time, Boro once again showed their nerve from the penalty spot to seal a 5-3 shoot-out win and a place in the final at Stockport County's Edgeley Park.
Each of Boro's penalty takers hit the target, before a superb Nick Draper save allowed Joe Lamplough the chance to wrap things up.
His winning spot-kick thrilled the home fans that have seen so much turmoil at the club in recent weeks and left Boro with a realistic chance of silverware at the end of a drab campaign.
Both teams observed a minute's applause for late Boro fan Alan Moffatt prior to kick off, but this failed to warm the players up for the opening exchanges.
Boro were without the injured Tom Corner and the cup-tied Dave Merris, so Callum Robinson slotted in up front and Dean Lisles filled a berth in midfield alongside Matty Bloor.
It took a full nine minutes for the first chance to arrive. Robinson pulled away at the back post but he couldn't direct his header on target.
As the half pressed on, it became clear that Boro were struggling to cope with the Ilkeston system and the Derbyshire side reaped the rewards.
David Jones showed what he had in his locker on the half-hour when he cut in and drilled just over the Boro bar.
Then, just before the break, Jones was afforded far to much space in the box and the striker whipped in a sweet volley that comfortably beat Draper and gave the visitors the lead.
Steve Kittrick and Chris Bolder hurried the Boro players into the changing room at the interval, and they made a swift alteration to their set-up.
This worked a treat, as matching Ilkeston's 4-4-2 soon gave Boro the upper hand.
With just 10 minutes of the second period played, Ryan Blott scampered onto a Dean Lisles through ball. The striker took his time before slotting under the body of Jamie Hannis.
Boro almost grabbed the lead soon after, as Nathan Peat met a corner from the right with a powerful volley, but the ball was headed off the line.
With Blott struggling from an ankle injury, Lamplough was brought on to bolster the midfield in the closing stages, with Robinson and Niall Flint being asked to run the doggies.
Robinson was given a good chance to finish things off with 10 minutes to go when the ball was scrambled to him on the edge of the box. The striker tried to place his effort, but it sailed wide of the goal.
More chances came and went, with Matt Baker's back-pass rolling past keeper Hannis, but he managed to make up the ground and scoop it off the line.
Then, Hannis spilled a Lisles effort at the feet of Flint, but the young striker failed to convert.
Having failed to kill the game off in normal time, Boro were in determined mood from 12 yards.
Peat, Paul Robson, Eddy Birch and Jamie Forrester all hit the back of the net to move Boro 4-3 ahead, then Draper's brilliant one-handed save from Danny Gordon's kick gave Boro the advantage.
Lamplough strode forward confidently and smashed home to give Boro, and their fans, a welcome cup final boost.