Rovers pressed for stages in the second period after Peterborough forced the issue for much of the first half, but could not find a way through in a well-balanced encounter where the respect between both managers was obvious.
Two excellent challenges from visiting captain Jack Baldwin denied Alfie May and sub Andy Williams on the restart, while veteran defender Steven Taylor - a Rovers target in the summer before opting to join Posh - spurned a chance to claim the winner when he headed straight at Ian Lawlor in the final ten minutes.
The first-half action saw Peterborough display evidence of just why they boasted an unblemished record in League One heading into the game, with a very presentable first half performance, which saw home keeper Lawlor kept busy.
But the Rovers custodian could do little about Marcus Maddison’s excellent curled shot from distance on 25 minutes, which thudded against the woodwork - the closest that either side came to scoring.
Maddison also went close with a low drive which was diverted just wide of goal by Tyler Garratt, while Lawlor had to field a scorching drive from Gwion Edwards in a strong spell for the visitors in the run-up to the break.
At the other end, Jonathan Bond denied John Marquis, who profited from an early mistake by Baldwin, while the Posh keeper blocked a low angled shot from May at his near post.
Analysis: Lack of clinical scoring edge sees Rovers settle for share of points
Former Posh boss Darren Ferguson was clearly mindful of the attacking prowess in his line-up, going ‘like for like’ with the visitors, in fielding a three-man central defence.
Rovers lost both games to Peterborough under his watch in 2015-16 and despite a decent tactical performance from his side, they lacked true conviction and a clinical edge in the final third despite a hard-working performance and some decent tempo for much of the second half.
A second clean sheet on home soil will provide the main substantive, but Rovers lacked fluidity up front, with last season’s top-scorer Marquis having a particularly frustrating game.
The sight of Jordan Houghton making his second debut for the club after coming on just before the half-hour mark also provided a welcome plus point on the restart.
Doncaster Rovers: Lawlor; Wright, Butler, Garratt; Blair, Whiteman, Coppinger, Rowe, Mason; Marquis, May. Unused substitutes: Marosi, Alcock, Houghton, Toffolo, Ben Khemis, Williams, Mandeville.
Peterborough United: Bond; Taylor, Baldwin, Tafazolli, Da Silva (Hughes 71); Grant, Doughty, Edwards; Morias (Kanu 61), Maddison, Marriott. Unused substitutes: O’Malley, Shephard, Lloyd, Anderson, Forrester.
Referee: G Salisbury (Lancashire).
Attendance: 8,677 (1,696 Peterborough supporters).