Phillips was assessed following Leeds' 1-0 win over Watford on Saturday and was not deemed fit enough to join up with the England squad for the forthcoming FIFA World Cup qualifiers.
The 25-year-old, who was voted the England men's senior player for 2021, is not expected to miss any games for Leeds when they resume their Premier League season at Southampton on October 16.
Saints midfielder James Ward-Prowse has taken Phillips's place in Gareth Southgate's squad. The Southampton captain will not face Leeds when the clubs return to action after being sent off last weekend against Chelsea.
A statement confirmed: "James Ward-Prowse has been added to the England squad to replace the injured Kalvin Phillips.
"The Southampton midfielder was part of a 24-man group that assembled at St. George’s Park on Tuesday.
"Phillips was assessed following Leeds United’s victory over Watford on Saturday and has been ruled out of the forthcoming FIFA World Cup qualifiers.
"Tammy Abraham and Ben Chilwell were added to the squad yesterday following the withdrawal of Reece James.
"The Three Lions face Andorra away on Saturday, October 9 before hosting Hungary at Wembley Stadium connected by EE on Tuesday, Oc