The home team dismissed Lancashire for 173 in pursuit of 349 to claim their second win in this year’s tournament.
Lancashire stay top by virtue of having won one more game, but they were soundly outplayed in this 256th Roses fixture.
Yorkshire needed five more wickets after lunch to complete the job after Lancashire resumed on 121-5.
They were made to work hard by the sixth-wicket pair of Karl Brown and Liam Livingstone, who added 63 in 32 overs before the visiors suddenly lost their way.
Livingstone fell for 24 when he pulled a long-hop from Adil Rashid straight down the throat of Liam Plunkett at deep mid-wicket.
And Rashid struck again in his next over when Tom Bailey top-edged another long-hop straight up in the air, wicketkeeper Andrew Hodd completing the catch to send Bailey on his way for two.
After losing those two wickets just before the second new ball, Lancashire continued to fold as Tim Bresnan had Neil Wagner strangled down the leg-side for two.
Brown was caught at short cover by Gary Ballance off Bresnan for the top score of 51, and Rashid rounded things off when he trapped Kyle Jarvis lbw for a duck.
Rashid finished with 4-17 and Bresnan 4-36.
Yorkshire captured four wickets in the opening session after the visitors resumed on 41-1.
The first two were claimed by spinners Rashid and Adam Lyth, to whom captain Andrew Gale was forced to turn after 20 minutes due to poor light.
Rashid struck in his second over when Haseeb Hameed was caught behind for 20 as he tried to cut the leg-spinner.
Lyth pounced in the next over when his part-time off-spin accounted for Luke Procter, who edged a drive to Alex Lees at slip to perish for 16.
Lancashire would have slipped to 68-4 but Steven Croft, on four, was reprieved by Lyth at first slip off Rashid.
But the Lancashire captain managed only one more run before Bresnan returned in improved light to bowl him off an inside edge.
Lancashire fell to 98-5 when Alviro Petersen played around his front pad to Bresnan and was lbw for 24.
Captain Andrew Gale said: “Brown and Livingstone batted very well but I felt that if we could take a wicket before the new ball we could open an end up.
“Conditions were a worry because I feared there could be a little bit of rain and the light didn’t get any better. But wickets have fallen against the new ball before and it can be a difficult track to bat on against the new ball.
“We have looked a lot more balanced with Bresnan back. He has been a massive miss for us because he gives us balance and control and bowling-wise I think it was our best performance of the season.
“Our top five batsmen are not firing as we would like but we are working hard to get it right. We are still winning games of cricket while not firing fully as a team. Our form doesn’t warrant being top of the league but we are finding ways to win, as Durham have done in the past.”