He played for Middlesbrough, Sheffield United and Leeds United during a long career before taking up a coaching role at Tottenham Hotspur.
A Spurs statement said Ehiogu died in hospital in the early hours of Friday.
Ehiogu, who was Spurs' Under-23s coach, was capped four times by England.
Tottenham's head of coaching and development, John McDermott, said: "Words cannot express the shock and sadness that we all feel at the club.
"Ugo's immense presence will be irreplaceable."
Ehiogu made over 200 appearances for Aston Villa between 1991 and 2000 and then spent seven years at Middlesbrough.
He won the League Cup with Villa in 1994 and 1996, and also with Boro in 2004.
The centre-back also played for West Brom, Leeds, Rangers and Sheffield United, before retiring in 2009. He began coaching at Tottenham in 2014.