He had made just three appearances this season before picking up his injury.
Huddersfield were beaten 5-1 by a strong Boro XI at the club's Canalside training ground, with Rhodes netting Town's only goal of the game.
The return of Rhodes has come at a key time for the Terriers, who are without a win in their last three Championship outings.
After drawing 1-1 with Yorkshire rivals Barnsley at Oakwell last weekend, Town are back on home soil on Saturday as they face Coventry City at 12.30pm.
At Canalside, Martin Payero scored twice in the first half for Middlesbrough to give them a 2-1 lead at the interval.
The visitors ran away with the game in the second 45 minutes with efforts from Josh Coburn and Calum Kavanagh as well as an own goal from Etienne Camara.
Rhodes played 76 minutes of the game before he was replaced by Connor Shanks.