Gough is initially expected to be in the role at Headingley until the conclusion of the 2022 season.
Yorkshire' s handling of Azeem Rafiq’s allegations of racism and harassment were widely criticised and led to chairman Roger Hutton and chief executive Mark Arthur standing down.
On Friday, 16 members of the coaching and medical staff were dismissed, including first-team coach Andrew Gale and director of cricket Martyn Moxon.
Gough started his duties yesterday (Monday), and he will be relinquishing his media duties.
The former Yorkshire and England player had been talkSPORT’s lead cricket commentator for England’s biggest International Test Matches from 2018-2021, as well as co-hosting the station’s Drive Time show.
Gough’s immediate priority will be overseeing the recruitment of a new coaching team.
Gough said: “Yorkshire County Cricket Club has been part of my life since my earliest days in cricket when I made my debut in 1989, and I spent 15 happy years at the club.
“Like many, I have followed how the club handled the recent racism allegations with sadness and anger. I want to play my part in rebuilding cricket in Yorkshire and I am looking forward to working with the exceptionally talented group of players here.
“I am also aware of my wider responsibility to listen to everyone and ensure that every person who is associated with this club feels welcome, instilling values we want associated with the White Rose: honesty, straight talking, hard work, integrity and excellence.
“I share Lord Patel’s vision for Yorkshire County Cricket Club, and the collective determination to face the issues head on with a series of positive actions.
“Change will not happen overnight, but I am certain that we can make Headingley roar again.”
Professor The Lord Patel of Bradford OBE, chair of Yorkshire County Cricket Club, added: “We are delighted to welcome Darren back to the club, and are very happy that he has taken the job.
“As a former captain of the club, Darren’s impact on the Yorkshire and England teams was considerable as a player.
“His infectious enthusiasm and will to win will be so important as we aim to be the best on and off the pitch.
“As we start on this journey with Darren, we want to engage everyone at the club and involve as many people as possible in shaping our direction.
“We have a considerable job ahead of us, but we are ready to embrace the opportunity together and build a brighter future for Yorkshire County Cricket Club.”
Gough played county cricket for Yorkshire for 15 years over two spells with the club.
He was a member of the 2001 squad that won the County Championship and, after captaining Essex, he returned to captain Yorkshire in 2007 and 2008 before retiring at the end of the 2008 season.
He is also regarded as one of England’s greatest fast bowlers, and was once described as the ‘heartbeat of England’s cricket team’.Gough is England’s 12th-most successful wicket taker in Test Match history.
He made history as England’s first cricketer to take over 200 (235) wickets in One Day Internationals and is the only Englishman in a century to get a hat-trick in a Test Match against Australia in Australia, in 1998.